by other men's mistakes, fools by their own."
page provides a set of annotated links to a range of papers
focused on the
history and development of modern project management and project controls.
- Visit our free PM Knowledge Index for a complete listing of available PM papers and articles -
|PP:||Published Papers: Written conference papers, journal articles, significant magazine articles and books.|
|Prs:||Presentations: Conference presentations (PowerPoint only).|
|DP:||Discussion Papers: An in-depth discussion of a topic.|
|WP:||White Papers: Short reference papers.|
|Art:||Articles: Short topical discussions published in a variety of media.|
|Blg:||Blogs: Selected blog posts from Mosaic and SRMM websites.|
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Mosaic's Training Courses:This free PM History site is funded by Mosaic to give back to a profession we have enjoyed working in for many years. Most of the documents are available for use and adaptation by your or your organisation under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. This work is funded by proceeds from our training courses:
Mosaic Project Services Pty Ltd's company history extends back over 30 years: see the timeline
History of Project ManagementPP: The Origins of Modern Project Management. This paper discusses the ways in which management theories evolved from the beginning of the 18th century and the technological inventions of the 20th century interacted to encourage the establishment of project management bodies, which in turn created the profession of modern project management.
PP: Trends In Modern Project Management - Past Present & Future. This paper discusses the trends in project management from the past, to the present and into the future.
Blg: The PMP® Examination is 30 years old. A brief history of the linked development of PMI's PMP examination and the PMBOK® Guide.
Blg: Construction project management is a very old profession. The construction of Hwaseong Fortress in Korea that was built between 1794 and 1796.
processes and concepts
PP: The origins of the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) calendar. This paper looks at the reasons why days have 24 hours but hours have 60 minutes and why the number of days in each month varies. The origins of today's UTC go back more then 6000 years!
Art: Are numbers real? This brief article looks at the origins and some of the irrational aspects of the numbers we use every day.
WP: The Functions of Management. The functions and principles of management (H. Fayol, 1916).
Blg: Arbitration has a long history. An outline of the Saxon legal codes used in the Kingdom of Kent prior to the Norman invasion of England.
The evolution of Governance & Ethics
Blg: The Evolution of Ethics. A brief outline of the evolution of ethical thinking.
Blg: The Origins of Integrity. Integrity is a martial word that comes to us from an ancient Roman army tradition..
Art: The Origins of Governance. The roots of governance and governing.
Blg: Governance and the Magna Carta. The role of the Magna Carta in defining governance principles.
Art: Project Governance & Control, The Building of the Crystal Palace. This article discusses the governance processes used to oversight the construction of the
Brief History of Scheduling. This
paper tracks the
development of scheduling from the emergence of 'bar charts' at the end
18th Century through to present times and looks at the way the evolving
technology has changed the way projects are scheduled and managed.
Art: A Brief History of Scheduling (short
The 1910 Schürch barchart referenced in the 'History of Scheduling' paper: These are fully developed, sophisticated project control tools in use many years before the work of Henry Gantt was published.
Art: The origins of PERT and CPM. Research into the origins of the mathematics and drawing styles used in PERT and critical path schedules. See below for specific sections on CPM, PDM and PERT.
Prs: Seeing the Road Ahead - the challenge of communicating schedule data. (This presentation will be developed into a full paper) The presentation looks at the challenges faced by project controls professionals, both in the past and present times, to communicate sophisticated information to other members of the project team and their stakeholders and some of the tools and processes they used.
Blg: Predicting Completion. When did managers start using data to calculate project completion times and costs? It would appear to be a development of the 1950s.
Blg: The three phases of project controls. The reactive, empirical and predictive phases of project controls (see also Predicting Completion).
Art: The Origins of Hammocks and Ladders. Hammock and Ladders are activity types that were developed in the period 1961 to 1965. This paper outlines the development of these useful scheduling assets an differentiates Hammocks from LOE and Summary activities.
The story of Micro Planner - one of the first scheduling tools developed for personal (micro) computers: see the timeline
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L Gantt (and why bar
charts are not
PP: Henry L. Gantt - A Retrospective view of his work The importance of Henry Gantt to the development of project management and modern business management cannot be understated. This paper traces his life’s work and contributions whilst debunking the myth that Henry Gantt developed bar charts. Henry Gantt deserves to be famous for the right reasons.
Henry Gantt's books (available for download - large PDFs):
See History of Project Controls (above) for information on the origins of Bar Charting and developed practice in the form of the Schürch barchart from 1910.