Location: PMKI > Advanced Tools & Techniques > Advanced Stakeholder Engagement.
- Stakeholder Theory and Research
- The Stakeholder Circle® methodology
- The Stakeholder Circle® tools & books
- The Stakeholder Relationship Management Maturity Model (SRMM®)
- Useful External Web-links.
Other related sections of the PMKI:
Accidental Project Manager – The Getting of Wisdom
The accidental project manager has lived in the folklore of business projects for a generation. This paper will discuss ways to help them increase their chances of achieving project success, including a description of the project management skills and tools needed for success including the Stakeholder Circle™. [View Abstract]
– Helping your Managers help you
Advising upwards is a difficult skill for project and program managers to acquire. This paper uses modern stakeholder management theory as the basis for approaches designed to help successfully deliver projects within traditional organisations by appreciating the communication needs of senior executives and incorporating mutuality within the key supportive relationships. [View Abstract]
Projects can be ‘on time and budget’ and fail! They can also be ‘over’ and succeed. Projects are only successful when their stakeholder’s expectations are delivered. This paper will identify the three elements of ‘stakeholder expectations’: value, relationships and risk. Then describe tools to manage these elements for success. [View Abstract]
- The Communication Strategy
Communication is a science and an art. Communicating effectively with the project’s important stakeholders, so that their expectations can be both managed and met, is central to achieving a successful outcome. Reports are not enough! Communication is a complex two way process within the overall relationship between the project and the stakeholder. This paper identifies the key processes involved in developing and implementing an effective communication strategy. [View Abstract]
a PMO to Succeed and Survive
To survive, a PMO requires executive sponsorship, management buy-in and a clear mandate (authority and autonomy).To be successful, the PMO should contribute to the strategic alignment of projects and programs, benefits realisation, leadership in implementation of best practices, continuous improvement, and being an information highway, facilitating open and targeted communications. Achieving this requires a clear understanding of the PMO's stakeholders and the organisation's objectives. [View Abstract]
Stakeholder Management Maturity in a traditional
business: an International Case Study
This paper reports on the work undertaken by a traditional multinational transport company to introduce effective stakeholder management into its terminal operations around the world as a factor that could deliver significant commercial advantage in the operation of the business. The case study describes the project to introduce and support a significant culture change in a major organisation and reports on the successful adaptation of a project management methodology, the Stakeholder Circle®, to general business use. [View Abstract]
From Commander to
Sponsor: Managing Upwards in the Project
This paper provides a foundation for exploration of the tasks needed to turn a senior manager 'Commander' into a supportive Sponsor and how to use the resources available in the form of influence networks, targeted communication and plain persistence. Case studies based on experiences of the authors, in large organisations, in managing the expectations and the support of key senior stakeholders are used to ground the paper. [View Abstract]
(The) future of
the PM Hero
The PM’s role is changing from a hero focused on the ‘iron triangle’ to a business leader. Project success is no longer being measured simply in terms of time and cost, but by value created and stakeholder satisfaction. This paper outlines the skills needed to succeed in this emerging environment. [View Abstract]
Stakeholder Mapping and Visualisation
Stakeholder identification, management and engagement are recognised as key project management skills that requires both intuition and a strong capacity for analysis. Visualisation tools for stakeholder management can be of great value. The development and use of two such tools are described. While they are both independently useful they could be effectively combined. [View Abstract]
Knowledge Management / Relationship Cycle
The Knowledge Management Relationship Cycle describes reciprocity between the data, information and knowledge that is exchanged for the business benefit of the organisation between the project and its stakeholders. It charts the strong connections between the organisation’s KM and the actions of the project Stakeholders in contributing to project success. [View Abstract]
Mega Problems - The critical need for effective
Effective stakeholder management is mandatory for mega-project success in all advanced economies and in most emerging economies. Effective stakeholder management encompasses the project team, the project supply chain and external to the project politicians, ‘the public’ and the media as well as people directly or indirectly impacted by the work or its outcomes. Tools developed to assist in this process will be discussed within the framework of managing mega construction projects to optimise the stakeholder relationships in and around the project and minimise risk exposures. [View Abstract]
Advancing theory and practice for successful
implementation of Stakeholder Management in
This paper firstly, describes the evolution of the Stakeholder Circle® from a research tool into a commercial project management tool and then into a maturity model (SRMM®) that describes the ‘readiness’ of an organisation to successfully implement a stakeholder management culture and practice. [View Abstract]
Relationship Management and the Stakeholder
A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Project Management (DPM). Dr Lynda Bourne investigated the concept that a project’s success or failure is closely aligned with perceptions of the project held by its key stakeholders; and that project teams can manage these perceptions to create success. The research resulted in a new tool, the ‘Stakeholder Circle™’ that maps each stakeholder community in a unique way, allowing the project team to effectively focus its stakeholder engagement strategies. [View Abstract]
Seeing who's there - A Brief
History of Stakeholder Mapping &
This paper focuses on describing the evolution of the concept of stakeholders from the 1970s through to the present day and the closely allied visualisation tools used at different times to see ‘who they are’. From this basis a current definition of stakeholders is determined and the merits of a range of current stakeholder management tools briefly described. The paper demonstrates that understanding ‘who’s there’ and more importantly ‘who matters’ is highly dependent on the tools and definitions used. [View Abstract]
five stages of Stakeholder Relationship Management
Engaging effectively and ethically with key stakeholders to help create a successful project outcome requires significant levels of skill and maturity. This paper will define the five levels of SRMM and suggest a route most organisations can follow to progress from ‘Level 1’ to ‘Level 5’. The 5 levels of SRMM are: Ad hoc, Procedural, Relational, Integrated and Predictive. [View Abstract]
Stakeholder Chameleon – Ignore at your Peril!
This paper presents the results from two case studies that show the strategies needed to engage project stakeholder support are different for every project, even when the stakeholders are the same people. [View Abstract]
Circle - Tool Description - Authors: Lynda
Bourne and Patrick
The Stakeholder Circle™ offers a mechanism for assessing the relative importance of each of the key stakeholders in a project. Stakeholders are weighted according to the three characteristics and the assessments are melded into a single diagram. [View Abstract]
Relationship Management in the Supply Chain
Effective procurement leadership requires the skills and knowledge to engage effectively with a wide range of stakeholders. This paper outlines the critical role stakeholders play in the operation of an effective supply chain and suggests a range of techniques supply chain professionals can apply to enhance their organisation’s stakeholder relationship management capabilities. [View Abstract]
PMO Performance - Author: Lynda
The value of a PMO to its host organisation is directly linked to its ability to communicate effectively with both senior management and project teams, in appropriate language, to facilitate access to the information it needs and to have its reports and messages understood and acted upon. By understanding its stakeholders and customising its communication strategy to meet their different requirements, the PMO becomes a significantly more valuable resource. [View Abstract]
Trust: a tale of
Building and maintaining effective relationships is not easy. It requires both parties to recognise that there will be differing expectations and definitions of success and requires work to develop the necessary trust through understanding the expectations of important stakeholders. Wembley Stadium illustrates how a lack of trust and ‘hard dollar’ contracts impacted relationships between the delivery partners; whereas Heathrow Terminal 5 proves the benefits derived from working to develop trust are well worth the effort. [View Abstract]
and Mapping Stakeholder Influence - Authors: Lynda
Bourne and Derek
This paper describes research that was conducted during 2004/2005 centred around the Stakeholder Circle™ tool, as a means to provide a useful and effective way to visualise stakeholder power and influence that may have pivotal impact on a project’s success or failure. [ View Abstract ]
Stakeholder Influence - Two Australian Examples - Authors: Lynda
Bourne and Derek
This paper illustrates the use of the Stakeholder Circle™ as a tool for measuring and visualising stakeholder influence drawing upon two case study examples. The paper is exploratory in nature and the case studies used provide a useful vehicle for reflection and sense making. The tool was found by the case study respondents to be useful and that it also complements and enhances risk management. [ View Abstract ]
stakeholder management so difficult?
The focus of this paper is the construction and operation of Heathrow Terminal 5 for British Airways. Through tracing its development from a successful construction project to its disastrous opening in 2008 a methodology to assist organisations in effective engagement of a project’s important stakeholders is described and lessons that will benefit all projects are identified. [View Abstract]
Paper: Achieving a Successful
- Paper: Avoiding the Successful Failure! (Stakeholders)
- Paper: Advancing theory and practice for successful implementation of Stakeholder Management in organisations
The Stakeholder Circle® is based on the premise that a project can only exist with the informed consent of its stakeholder community. This community comprises individuals and groups, each with a different potential to influence the project’s outcome. The Stakeholder Circle® has been devised to offer a mechanism for assessing the relative influence of each of the key stakeholders and planning ways to engage with and manage their expectations/contributions. The benefit of using this methodology is derived in part from the analysis process itself as well as from the ease with which the influence of key stakeholder’s on the project can be judged once the ‘Stakeholder Circle’ is complete.
The tools facilitates the regular updating of this assessment as the stakeholder community changes to reflect the dynamic nature of the project and its relationships. Changes and trends are tracked over time to help the team identify which engagement strategies are working and which need reviewing.
To develop the 'circle', Stakeholders are weighted according to the three characteristics.
Power: Some stakeholders (either alone or operating as a group) can kill the project using their own power, other stakeholders have the power to change or damage the project but cannot on their own cause it to be cancelled or fail – this is the power axis in the stakeholder circle.
Proximity: This aspect considers how closely a stakeholder is associated with the day-to-day running of the project. The centre of the diagram represents the project. The space between the two circles represents the sphere of influence of the project on its whole stakeholder community. The proximity of a stakeholder to the project is represented by how close their segment is to the project in the centre.
Urgency / Importance: The width of the arc represents the amount of urgency or importance attributed to a stakeholder from the teams perspective (ie, how likely the stakeholder is to use its power), the wider the segment, the greater the urgency.
Note: The SWS spreadsheet uses embedded macros and is designed for use by one business unit, project or program. You will need to enable the macros to use the tool.
The SWS is a sophisticated spreadsheet based on the Stakeholder
Circle methodology, designed to manage all of
the key aspects of stakeholder engagement for a single
project or business unit, including: - Identifying the
stakeholders, defining their role and understanding both
your requirements and their expectations (mutuality).
- Assessing the priority of each stakeholder based on their power, proximity and urgency.
- Determining an engagement strategy for each of the key stakeholders to optimise their attitude towards
- Reviewing and updating the situation at regular intervals during the life of the project.
Download a free sample: Download
the sample Spreadsheet
SoaP is an easy to use template designed to implement the
Stakeholder Circle methodology:
- Identifying the stakeholders, defining their role and understanding both your
requirements and their expectations (mutuality).
- Assessing the priority of each stakeholder based on their power, proximity
- Determining an engagement strategy for each of the key stakeholders to
optimise their attitude towards the project
- Reviewing and updating the situation at regular intervals (three updates).
- Tracking issues (on the reverse side of the sheet)
Download a free sample: Download the sample Template
Communication Plan: CommWS - Excel Template
A practical template for planning and monitoring the routine reporting and communication requirements of a project or program. For each report you define: - The report name, start date (first report sent) and frequency (from daily to monthly) - The planned recipients of each report
The system monitors when the reports are due to be sent and if they have been sent and received.
This is a very robust, easy to use tool that ensures that all essential reports and routine communications are effectively managed.
Download a free sample: Download Sample Spreadsheet
Stakeholder management books.
Books authored by Dr. Lynda Bourne. Click through to the relevant book page:
Making Projects Work: Effective Stakeholder and Communication Management. Dr. Lynda Bourne: Projects are performed by people for people, with the key determinants of success being the relationships between project teams and project stakeholders. This web of relationships will either enable or obstruct the flow of information between people and, as a consequence, will largely determine project success or failure. See more.
Advising Upwards: A Framework for Understanding and Engaging Senior Management Stakeholders. Dr. Lynda Bourne: Building, and managing, relationships with senior (upwards) stakeholders is essential for success. This requires the activity manager to be skillful at building and maintaining robust relationships, focused on engaging the support of senior executives, understanding their expectations and managing them through targeted communication. See more.
Relationship Management A Maturity Model for
Organisational Implementation. Dr.
Lynda Bourne: This book provides the 'road map'
needed to help organizations achieve effective stakeholder
engagement in two ways. Firstly, it is a ‘how-to’ book,
secondly, it is a guidebook for assessing the current
maturity of an organization. See