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PMP Questions from Mosaic


Today's, and this week's questions:

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Monday:

Rolling wave planning assumes:

A. Planning information is available for some phases in detail but there are gaps.

B. Planning will require the stakeholders to engage with key groups first, then rippling out to more remote groups.

C. Planning is performed for the project, and then as more information is available progressive elaboration is used to adjust and finalise.

D. The team is likely to have accurate and detailed information for the short-term and less information further out.

Best Answer = D

All of the statements are true to an extent, D is the best answer because it explicitly introduces the concept of time. Rolling wave planning focuses on decomposing near-term elements in the WBS to an appropriate level of detail in the schedule for the work to be accomplished efficiently, leaving more time-distant work packages at a summary level until adequate information becomes available.

For more on rolling wave planning see: https://www.mosaicprojects.com.au/WhitePapers/WP1060_Rolling_Wave.pdf

Reference: PMBOK® Guide 6th Edition 6.2.2.3

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Sunday:

Virtual teams have all of the following characteristics except:

A. Team communication tends to be dominated by electronic formats such as IM and email.

B. Teams members tend to have a shared goal but spend little time in face-to-face meetings.

C. Team members are concerned with managing diverse stakeholder views and expectations.

D. It is possible to include people with mobility handicaps.

Best Answer = C

Managing diverse stakeholder views and expectations is the responsibility of the project manager (not team members) and is an important consideration for all projects - making this the least specific item. The other factors are characteristic of virtual teams that are distinctly different to collocated teams.

For more on Resource Management see: https://mosaicprojects.com.au/PMKI-PBK-035.php

Reference: PMBOK® Guide 6th Edition 9.3.2.4

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Saturday:

Which of the following tools would be best for plotting changes in the performance of a process over time?

A. A comparison bar chart (Gantt chart).

B. A scatter diagram.

C. A Pareto chart.

D. A control chart.

Best Answer = D

A control chart (sometimes called a run chart) is the only one of these tools that plots performance over time (a trend chart has similar data but tends to plot information historically, a control chart is usually plotted in 'real time'). Scatter diagrams compare two variables to assess the degree of correlation, Pareto charts are a special form of ranked histogram that plots summarised data and a comparison bar chart compares current and planned performance and shows the variance at a single point in time.

For more on Quality Management see: https://mosaicprojects.com.au/PMKI-PBK-030.php

Reference: PMBOK® Guide 6th Edition 8.3.2.5

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Friday:

Which of the following is not usually considered to be a part of the 'cost of quality'?

A. The cost of incentive bonuses paid to the project team.

B. The cost of investments made to improve the reliability of production outputs.

C. Costs incurred in appraising the product or service.

D. The cost of services purchased to ensure compliance with mandatory standards.

Best Answer = A

Incentive bonuses are usually paid to encourage increased productivity and are therefore not a 'cost of quality' - while the incentive may be for 'defect free work' this is the only option that is not specifically quality related and therefor the only viable answer. The 'cost of quality' includes all of the costs associated with preventing non-conformance, checking/inspecting for conformance and rectifying any defects. This includes improving reliability (to prevent non-conformance), appraisals and costs associated with conforming to mandatory standards.

For more on the practical application of the 'cost of quality' see: https://www.mosaicprojects.com.au/WhitePapers/WP1083_Valuing_Stakeholder_Management.pdf

Reference: PMBOK® Guide 6th Edition 8.1.2.3

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Thursday:

Which of the following would not be capable of showing a project overrun?

A. Variance at completion

B. Over target baseline

C. Cost baseline

D. SPI

Best Answer = C

The cost baseline is the authorised time phased budget for the project; variances, including project overruns are compared to the baseline. An over target baseline is created if the project is overrunning and cannot be reasonably expected to recover and therefore shows an agreed overrun. VAC (variance at completion) is the difference between the budget and the expects cost at completion. SPI is the Schedule Performance Index and measures the value of work accomplished against the value of work planned to be accomplished at a date.

For more on EV see: https://www.mosaicprojects.com.au/WhitePapers/WP1081_Earned_Value.pdf

Reference: PMBOK® Guide 6th Edition 7.4.2.2

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Wednesday:

What is the difference between management reserves and contingency reserves (if any)?

A. There is no difference, different references use the terms interchangeably.

B. Management reserves are applied to the schedule contingency reserves are applied to costs.

C. Contingency reserves are included in the performance management baseline, management reserves are held outside of the baseline.

D. Management reserves are created to cover known unknowns, contingency reserves are created for unknown unknowns.

Best Answer = C

Whilst there are different uses for the terms this is a PMI examination! Contingency reserves are allowances for unplanned but accepted risks (known unknowns) and are included in the performance management baseline (PMB). Management reserves are withheld from the PMB for management control, primarily to compensate for unknown unknowns.

For more on reserves see: https://www.mosaicprojects.com.au/WhitePapers/WP1081_Earned_Value.pdf

Reference: PMBOK® Guide 6th Edition 7.3.3.1 + Practice Standard for Earned Value Management

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Tuesday:

An analogous cost estimate is usually:

A. Generally acceptable.

B. Generally less accurate.

C. Bottom-up estimating.

D. Top-up estimating.

Best Answer = B

Analogous cost estimates are generally less accurate than other forms of estimating (bottom-up or parametric), but this depends on the information and knowledge available to the estimator. Analogous is a 'top-down' estimating technique that uses expert judgement to assess the likely cost based on similar reference projects that have been completed. Analogous cost estimates are useful in the early phases of a project and may indicate the expectations of senior managers (based on their view of previously completed similar work).

For more on cost estimating see: https://www.mosaicprojects.com.au/WhitePapers/WP1051_Cost_Estimating.pdf

Reference: PMBOK® Guide 6th Edition 7.2.2.2

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