PMKI Index
the PMKI

Schedule Management

Location:  PMKI > PMBoK Knowledge Areas > Schedule Management. 

This subject covers the work required to plan, estimate, manage and control the work required for the timely completion of the project and any intermediate stages.

The PMKI Library

Topics included in Schedule Management:

- Plan the schedule
- Develop the schedule
- Manage the schedule
- Useful external web-links

Other related sections of the PMKI:

- Advanced project scheduling and controls
- TBA.


Temporary Subject List - this page is being rebuilt:

  • Schedule Management & General Resources  
  • Planning -v- Scheduling: The different aspects of project management, planning and scheduling.
  • Planners and Schedulers: Personal attributes and certifications / qualifications
  • CPM - Critical Path Method - General
    • DPDynamic Scheduling. Describes the benefits derived from developing a logically linked schedule.  
    • WP: Project Planning -v- Scheduling. Planning is focused on optimising the sequencing of the work and the methods to be used as a precursor to scheduling which focuses on how the method will be implemented.  
    • Prs: Establish the Project Schedule. The steps needed to develop and validate an effective project schedule.   
  • Project Controls - Issues and Limitations with CPM - Options for improvement
    • Blg: The future of project controls. Using modern technology to focus on what really matters, resources accomplishing work in the optimum sequence for each location.  
    • PrsProjects controls using integrated data. The future of project time management as an integrated part of an overall project information system.    
    • PP: Improving Schedule Management. This paper defines a new role for the project schedule and the project scheduler within the complex, dynamic, collaborative environment that defines many modern projects.  
    • PP: The Project Start-Up Conundrum. At the time when the project team can exert the greatest influence on a project's overall success, the team itself is forming and at its least effective!!! Solutions are proposed.    
    • Art: The Scheduling Conundrum. Effective scheduling makes a significant difference to project success but in most projects, the schedule is ignored, bad scheduling practice is the norm and most projects finish late.  
    • Blg : Critical confusion – when activities on the critical path don’t compute…… The use of Finish-to-Finish and Start-to-Start links (particularly in combination) can cause significant issues in calculating the overall project duration. 
    • PP: Float - Is It Real?  Float only exists because of the limitations built into CPM calculations, while it is useful, it is not 'real' - full paper.    
    • Art: Float is it real?.  Float only exists because of the limitations built into CPM calculations, while it is useful, it is not 'real' - short summary.
    • PP: Why Critical Path Scheduling (CPM) is Wildly Optimistic. The biases built into the CPM methodology that underestimate project durations.       
    • Art: Problems with scheduling practice. A brief look at the three major problem areas affecting scheduling practice.          
    • Art: The problem with CPM. The problem with scheduling and CPM is not the technology, it’s a lack of skills on the part of the people employed as schedulers. 
  • Links, Leads,  Lags and Ladders (PDM)
  • Duration and Resource Estimating
  • CPM Calculations
    • DP: Schedule Calculations. A detailed guide the Time Analysis and Float calculations used in PDM schedules.  
    • Blg: Schedule Calculations – Old and New. The difference between old manual calculations starting from Zero, and the correct calculations used by modern computers.    
  • Critical Path & Float
    • WP: Defining the Critical Path.  There are many different descriptions in regular use, this WP provides a concise and accurate definition.      
    • DP: Schedule Float. discusses the various calculations and definitions for Free float and Total float. 
    • PP: Float - Is It Real? This paper analyses the factors creating the ‘critical path’ and ‘float’ within a schedule and then looks at the misuse and  value of 'float'.  For a summary, see also Art: Float is it real?.  
    • Art: Calculating and Using Float (PM World Today). Based on the above, this review looks at the different types of float and slack that used to be calculated in ADM and PDM schedules, compared to the limited options used today.            
  • Schedule updating and control
  • Communicating schedule information
    • Prs: Seeing the Road Ahead - the challenge of communicating schedule data.  This paper briefly reviews the history of visualizing time from 1765 through to the challenges of presenting computer generated schedule data in a meaningful way.       
    • PP Understanding the Schedule - The challenge of informed consent. “The single biggest problem in communication is the illusion that it has taken place” [George Bernard Shaw] presenting a schedule does not mean the recipient has understood the information! 
    • Prs: Communication in organisations: making the schedule effective. The challenges associated with communicating controls information in a way that is understood and appreciated by stakeholders (particularly senior managers) so they can use the information to make informed decisions.   
    • Prs: Communications Control?  Schedules cannot control anything - they are inert sources of information! These papers look at the challenge communicating  the information to influence decisions and behaviour.  
    • Blg: Mind your language - A picture may tell a 1000 words, but it need to be a well designed picture if the message is to be meaningful. 
    • Art: What’s the message??  The way schedule reports are designed can change the understanding of key stakeholders.     
  • Resource scheduling and optimisation
    • PP: Resource optimisation - a new paradigm for project scheduling. This paper looks at ways to reverse the paradigm that makes the activity duration central to scheduling. The work is the constant, the resources used, the variable and the duration the outcome.     
    • Art: Resource Optimisation. The best schedule outcome is achieved by maximising the use of the available resources, but most scheduling tools fail to achieve this.     
  • Schedule Analytics & Quality
  • Scheduling methodologies (other)
    • WP: Relationship Driven CPM. The RDCPM® variation of the Critical Path Method of schedule analysis focuses on the reason for the relationship between activities and the reason for their overlap.    
    • WP: Momentology. Momentology uses the schedule to measure the momentum of work on the project. The loss of momentum is a reliable predictor of a delayed completion.   
    • WP: Critical Chain. CCPM is a method of planning and managing projects that puts the main emphasis on the utilisation of the resources required to execute project tasks.    
    • WP: Line of Balance. LOB is a method of showing the repetitive work that may exist in a project as a single line on a graph and shows the rate at which the work has to be undertaken to stay on schedule.    
    • WP: Multiple Activity Charts. Multiple Activity Charts show the flow of work within a cyclical process and as a consequence show which resource is controlling the overall progress of the work.  
    • WP: Timeboxing. Timeboxing is a simple process used to measure the complete of a defined amount of work in a fixed period, plus or minus an allowed variation (the 'time box').           
  • Schedule levels & integration (major projects)
    • Schedule Levels provides a guide the 5 levels of schedule typically used on major projects.     
  • Rolling Wave and Schedule Density
    • WP: Schedule Density. The concept of schedule density  is similar to rolling wave planning but applies a time based three stage approach to developing an overall summary, 12 month intermediate, and 3 month detailed schedule.    
    • WP: Rolling Wave Planning. Rolling wave is a form of progressive elaboration, increasing the detail in a schedule as more information becomes available.    
  • Schedule Risk & Uncertainty: Monte Carlo, PERT and managing schedule risk.
    • PP: Why Critical Path Scheduling (CPM) is Wildly Optimistic. The factors that drive CPM towards an optimistic initial assessment including psychological biases, single point estimates and limitations of the CPM modelling process are defined and quantified.   
    • WP: Understanding PERT PERT is the oldest and arguable the least effective / least accurate way to model uncertainty. This paper traces the origins of PERT and the reasons for its limitations.      
    • Art: Predicting project completion.  The use of Earned Schedule and the 'P-Factor in determining a realistic completion date are defined.   
    • Blg: Predicting Completion. The requirement to finish a 'project' on time with associated penalties for late completion hs been around for 3000 years. The question asked in this post is when did predictive tools start to emerge to give the contractor some insight into the consequences of current performance rates?  
    • Art: Standard Deviation for Project Managers.  The concepts behind Standard Deviation and how it is used.      
    • Art: Predicting Future Project Outcomes - The power of uncertainty Monte Carlo, Latin Hypercube and Sampling.       
  • Scheduling Complexity and Agile Projects: Scheduling projects where change is expected, unavoidable or intended.   
    • PP: Scheduling in the Age of Complexity. This paper suggests that a radically different approach is needed to make scheduling relevant and useful in the 21st Century based on an understanding of the effects of complexity. .    
    • PP: Scheduling Complexity. Managing complex project schedules using a layered approach to time management that focuses on adapting behaviours to overcome problems.      
    • Art: Controlling Complex Projects.  Applying the principle of auftragstaktik (or ‘bounded initiative’) to effectively manage complex projects.    
  • Scheduling Software
    • xx

Useful external web-links

  • External Link - to be added
  • xx
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