The History of Ancillary Project Management Concepts

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This subject looks at a the origins of diverse range of ancillary factors used in PM such as calendars, numbers, and arbitration.

Topics included in the History of Ancillary Project Management Concepts:

- The Origins of Numbers, Calendars and Calculations
- The Development of General Management Theory
   - The development of Knowledge Management
- The History of Dispute Management and Arbitration.

Other related sections of the PMKI:

- The development of Modern Project Management
- Henry Gantt's contribution to management theory

The Origins of Numbers, Calendars and Calculations

PM History
PP: The origins of the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) calendar. This paper looks at the reasons why days have 24 hours but hours have 60 minutes and why the number of days in each month varies. The origins of today's UTC go back more then 6000 years!

Art: Measuring time The development of devices capable of measuring time with ever increasing levels of accuracy, is directly linked to the development of calendars. This article traces improvements in the way time is measured over the last 6000 years. 

Art: Knowing (exactly) where you are is not that simple! Many projects need to accurately locate the position of property lines and facilities, but achieving this is far from straightforward. The modern Reference Meridian used by GPS and other systems is approximately 102 meters east of the original Greenwich Meridian set in the 19th century. How did this occur? – It is a long story that intertwines astronomy, map making, navigation, and time keeping. 

Blg: The Great Library of Alexandria – The first Google? The influence of the Great Library of Alexandria on the development of knowledge outlined in the papers above was significant, for several centuries scholars from across the 'known world' were accommodated and works in what was effectively a sate funded research institution.

Blg: Detail can be the enemy of useful! Every height in the in the Great Britain is stated as a height above (or below) the mean sea level as recorded by the tidal gauge at Newlyn in Cornwall. The problems is that when you measure heights from space using accurate GPS, the whole Cornish Peninsular rises and falls by up to 13 centimeters twice a day in response to the tides moving gigatons of water in and out of the English and Bristol Channels. All of this flexing means there will be measurable differences between surveys done using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and those based on an Ordnance Survey datum. This raises two questions, which reference system should you use, and how much detail is useful? The answers are in the blog post.     

Blg: The Mayan Calendar is equivalent to the Greek’s knowledge of the universe! It seems the ancient Mayan civilization were as sophisticated and the Greek and Babylonian civilizations when it comes to understanding the cycles of the planets. Their 819-day calendar, used from at least the 5th century BCE – matches the planetary cycles of all planets that might have been visible to astronomers of the civilization over a 45-year span!  

Art: Are numbers real? This brief article looks at the origins and some of the irrational aspects of the numbers we use every day.

PP: The Origins of Bar Charting. This paper looks at the ancient Greek and Egyptian origins of numbers, geometry, and calculations; the concepts used by both Priestly and Playfair as a starting point to develop their charts which in turn led to the development of the modern bar chart by the late 1800s.

Blg: What is an algorithm? The answer depends on the year you asked the question! This post looks at the origins of the name, the invention of algebra, the introduction of modern numbers and the decimal point to the West, and the evolution of the meaning of algorithm, starting with the person who's name it is: Al-Khwarizmi.

Blg: Who invented calculus? The answer, Newton was first, but the notation developed by Leibniz is the one students of calculus still use, the blog post has more details.

Blg: The evolution of design processes This post briefly looks at the development of orthographic projection and the foundation of the the École Polytechnique in Paris in the late 18th century, which together transitioned engineering design from an art to a mathematical science underpinning the engineering and construction booms of the 19th century.


The Development of General Management Theory

Management HistoryPP: The Origins of Modern Management. This paper discusses the ways in which management theories evolved from the beginning of the 18th century through to the 21st century and how these developments influenced the creation of 'modern project management'.

WP: The Functions of Management. The functions and principles of management (H. Fayol, 1916).

For the development of project management see: The Origins of Modern Project Management.

Art: Professional Project Management. What does professional project management look like? This article looks at the evolution of the concept of a formal profession and what this may mean for project management.

The development of Knowledge Management

Art: Finding Information – The art of Indexing.  There are vast amounts of management knowledge available, the challenge is finding the right information when needed. This article traces the origins of the index and taxonomy over the last 800 years, and provides links to a number of specialized search engines that are free to use.

Blg: The Great Library of Alexandria – The first Google? The influence of the Great Library of Alexandria on the development of knowledge management was significant. The systems developed in the library to structure knowledge, lay out the library, and classify the documents carry through to modern times.

The PMKI Taxonomy is designed to make finding the information easier, and augments the site specific Google search in the header above.

Click through to out page focused on modern corporate management.


The History of Dispute Management and Arbitration

Blg: Arbitration has a long history. An outline of the Saxon legal codes used in the Kingdom of Kent prior to the Norman invasion of England.

Blg: Scot-free & Lots. The allocation and payment of fees and taxes (not to mention voting rights) are the cause of many disputes. This post looks at the origins of the terms Lot and Scot-Free.

Click through to our page focused on dispute management.     


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