Location: PMKI > PMBoK Knowledge Areas > Integration Management.
- Integration Overview
- Develop project management plan
- Direct and manage project work
- Manage project knowledge
- Monitor and control project work
- Perform integrated change control
- Close project or phase
- Useful External Web-links & Resources.
Other related sections of the PMKI:
Project Integration Management describes the processes used to identify, define, combine, unify, and coordinate the various processes and activities within all of the other project management process groups and project management knowledge areas. It involves a project manager making choices about:
This function is the specific responsibility of the project manager. All of the other ‘knowledge areas’ will typically have discipline experts involved in the majority of the work. The project manager’s skill is understanding enough about the different disciplines to be able to take a holistic view of the work and manage the integration and optimization of the total effort of the project. Click through for more on the personal skills and competencies required by the project manager.
Integration Management focuses on the coordination and integration of the various project management activities performed by different discipline experts including:
Organizations create the environment within which projects and programs operate. The organizational aspects of project, program, and portfolio management, including entities such as PMOs are the focus of the Organizations & Governance section of the PMKI.
WP: EEF and OPA – The Differences. Outlines the 'Enterprise Environment Factors' (EEF) and 'Organizational Process Assets' (OPS) that may assist or constrain the work.
WP: PDC Taxonomy. The overall Project Delivery Capability (PDC) framework needed by an organization to successfully create value from its projects and programs.
WP: The Strategic Management of Projects. Describes the organizations ability to select, nurture and deliver projects and programs effectively.
Complex Decision Making: Many aspects of project management involve making complex decisions - this CSIRO paper provides valuable insights into how people make complex decisions: download the paper
Developing the project management plan integrates all of the other project planning processes (time, cost, scope, quality, etc.) to optimize project performance and to achieve project’s objectives. Very often trade-offs are needed in the planning processes to achieve this.
WP: Project Strategy.
Defining the best strategy for the achievement of the
projects objectives is key to achieving a successful
outcome. One the key early decisions that determine
project success is selecting the right approach to project
delivery. One-size does not 'fit all':
- Agile approaches work in some situations but need a very different management style. See more on Agile.
- Traditional approaches need to be varied depending on the project type, size and procurement strategies.
Art: Philosophies & Principles Used to shape planning approaches. Any output from a planning process is an expression of the fundamental principles and philosophies (ie, approaches) applied by the planners to develop their plan. This article outlines some of the approaches that can be used in combination, or isolation to develop a project plan.
Blg: Defining Project Success using Project Success Criteria. Project success can be ephemeral – successful organizations work to define success so they know when it has been achieved!
Art: Achieving Real Project Success. There are at least three different criteria for success that can operate independently: Project Management Success, Technical Success & Business Success.
WP: Statement of Work (SoW). A Statement of Work (SOW) is a formal document that captures and defines the work activities, deliverables and timeline the project (or a vendor) will execute against in performance of specified work for a client. The SOW typically forms part of a purchase order or contract but may be attached to a business case.
A complete section of the PMKI is devoted to project controls and scheduling - this section extends well beyond the knowledge needed for the PMP exam.
Directing and managing the project’s work is the whole purpose of project management; the project team, suppliers and subcontractors need to implement the project plan and create the project’s deliverables. The project manager leads this effort.
Art: Understanding ‘Expert Judgement’. Expert judgement is and important concept in many PMBOK processes; this paper explains what it is and how to apply it.
WP: Managing Meetings. Meetings are a key part of all projects and central to the effective communication needed to direct and manager work. But, it is important to make the necessary meetings effective.
WP: Issues Management. An issue is a current problem that has a quantifiable negative impact on the work of the project, and requires managing.
Defining, selecting and implementing an effective methodology and then using process improvement to enhance the methodology is important in achieving consistent outcomes:
WP: Methodologies. A step-by-step series of processes for delivering a project, based on established ways of achieving a successful outcome.
Blg: PMBOK -v- Methodology. The PMBOK is a guide to knowledge, not a methodology. Selective application of the knowledge is needed to create a methodology.
Blg: Agile is NOT a Project Management Methodology. Agile is a product development methodology that can be usefully applied in a range of soft projects including IT.
Effective processes and procedures start from well founded principles, only after these are established add processes and practices. And the inverse - don't accept or apply any process or practice without first determining what principle that process or practice is based on or informed by.
WP: The value of Standard Operating Procedures. Well designed SOPs and workflows allow 'bounded initiative' to be used as an 'agile' management approach.
WP: Process Improvement. A process is a series of standard actions, tools or techniques that are applied to transform the inputs to the process into outputs.
Art: Processes -v- People. You can get the best of both worlds by embedding organizational agility into your procedures, methodologies and management.Blg: Self Correcting Processes. Designing efficient processes so that their use is almost unavoidable.
Art: Processes in Project Management. The next generation of project management standards to be released by both ISO and PMI in 2020 will look radically different to their predecessors. This article explains why 'processes' are being dropped from the new standards (and their use in supporting the implementation of the standards).
Lessons learned are part of the organization's knowledge management (KM) system and are both an input and an output from a project. Knowledge and information are an important input to doing the work, and then monitoring and controlling the work creates new knowledge. This knowledge may relate to:
This knowledge needs to be captured, and made available for use both later in the project and within the organization as a whole. This function incorporates the traditional ‘lessons learned’ processes, but extends to a much wider range of documentation and information.
Initially, the useful learning is captured in the project’s ‘lessons learned register’ and transferred across to the organization's KM system at appropriate times. Typically this would be at the end of a phase, sprint or iteration. As a consequence of this and other inputs, the organization's KM system gets to hold a lot of useful information.
When a project needs to do something challenging, accessing the right information from the organization helps minimize errors and saves time. In PMI speak this information is an ‘Organizational Process Asset’, which largely consists of ‘lessons learned’ from other (previous) projects. Developing a good KM system that actually provides useful information quickly and accurately though, remains a major challenge for most organizations. Achieving this is the focus of the papers in this section.
Data collection is the process of gathering facts that may provide information and inform either a controls system or a decision. For example daily sales data in a shop can be used to automatically update the restocking system. But the same data can be used to inform decisions on pricing and what to promote more or stop selling.
There are two ways to collect data. One is to decide in advance what you need and set up processes to gather that data set only - the risk is there may be important information not be collected. The other is ‘big data’ where you gather information on everything and put it into a system for data mining - the challenge here is asking the data mining tools the right ‘questions’. Good systems collect the data real-time using feeds from tools or systems that are needed to operate the business (eg, sales data direct from the cash registers in real time). Less effective systems collect data after the event (eg, a weekly review of progress). But on its own data is useless it needs transforming into information which is the role of 'knowledge management'.
Knowledge management is becoming increasingly important in many organizations, and is now a central aspect of integrated project management. The term ‘knowledge management’ involves two interlinked elements that together can help organizations grow and succeed, information management and knowledge creation. People know things, knowledge is organic, adaptive and created – it exists in the minds of people. Information is recorded, it is held in systems and made accessible to people. Good information management systems contain verified information in a useful format but the information is of no value unless it is accessed and used. This section highlights the important fact that, knowledge management systems require the active involvement of people at every stage of the DIKW chain to contribute anything of value back to the organization that has invested in setting up the system.
Art: Data to Wisdom - Creating and Managing Knowledge. The processes and documents used to transform raw data into the knowledge needed for wise decisions from a project controls perspective.
PP: The Knowledge Management / Relationship Cycle. The reciprocity between the data, information and knowledge that is exchanged with stakeholders for the benefit of the stakeholder, and the business benefit of the organization.
Art: Knowledge management is more than information management. People know things, knowledge is organic, adaptive and created – it exists in the minds of people. Information is recorded, it is held in systems and made accessible to people.Both aspects need to be incorporated into a KM system.
Art: Knowledge management is more than simply learning lessons.The challenges of transforming lessons learned into useful knowledge.
WP: Lessons Learned. The process of gathering and using lessons in a corporate knowledge management context.
Art: Ask for information you can use. If you are not careful, the easy to measure drives out the harder to quantify, even when the latter is more important.
Knowledge management is integral to:
Management always involves the monitoring and controlling of activities to ensure they remain as closely aligned to the plans as is practical. The monitoring and controlling process integrates outputs from all of the other knowledge area controlling processes to provide a holistic picture of the current status of the project and information needed to manage its ongoing activities. This requires the integration of the various project controls functions to develop information to assist in the management of the project and communication with stakeholders.
WP: Project Controls – A Definition. Project controls are the data gathering, management and analytical processes used to predict, understand and constructively influence the time and cost outcomes of a project or program through the communication of information in formats that assist effective governance and management decision making.
WP: Gateways and Score Cards. Two approaches to determining the on-going viability of a project and measuring its success are ‘gateway reviews’ and balanced scorecards.
Despite the best efforts of project managers, planners and those managing the work, change is inevitable! Projects must adapt to changing conditions and circumstances whether it’s an unexpected event, a mistake somewhere in the process, or a client instructed variation. Effective change management is key to project success and incorporates:
The project team have to be able to identify and quantify and then manage the change management processes, to deal with changes arising from ‘all over the place’.
This activity directly affects the client and other stakeholders, therefore integrated change control almost inevitably involves some form of coordinated decision-making that includes senior management from within the performing organization and the customer. Once approved changes to the project are incorporated into the planning process, and from there into the actual work of the project. Consequently, the way a change request is processed can have a significant impact on the project and its eventual success - accuracy, agreement (or at least understanding), and speed are the three key elements to a cood change control function.
DP: Project and Change Management in the PMBOK® Guide (PMI Publication). The way various PMI Standards support effective organizational change management.
Art: Creating Value from Change. The different roles involved in generating value from the change created by a project.
WP: Organizational Change Management. The overall importance of managing change effectively.
Finally, by definition projects are temporary activities that have to be closed at completion. The final step in the integrated management of a project is the closing of each project phase and finally the overall project. This includes the work needed to maximize the value achieved by the project through proper transfers to either the organization, or its client, including maximizing the retention of knowledge.
WP: Lessons Learned. The process of gathering and using lessons in a corporate knowledge management context.
If the project is not closed off, system resources are wasted in accounts, HR, etc., people have a place to hide costs (by miss-allocating them), and budget, and other resources assigned to the project are not freed up for use elsewhere. The open project also offers opportunities for people to keep doing unnecessary extra work wasting money and resource effort. Proper closure is essential if the project is terminated early.
The Major Projects Knowledge Hub - Lessons learned from major projects in the UK - https://www.majorprojectsknowledgehub.net/