The History of Project Controls

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This subject provides a general overview of the development of project control techniques from bar charts through to modern optimisation and integration (BIM). The origins of specific techniques are discussed as separate subjects below.

Topics included in The History of Project Controls:

- The history of scheduling
- The history of Earned Value and Cost Controls
- Developments in the creation and use of controls information

Other related sections of the PMKI:

- Project controls and scheduling; current practice
- The origins of CPM, PDM and PERT schedules

The history of scheduling

PP: The Origins of Schedule Management. The concepts used for project schedule management have very deep roots. This paper traces the development of the concepts most project managers take for granted including bar charts and critical path schedules from their origins (which are far earlier than most people think) through to the modern day.

PP: A Brief History of Scheduling. This paper tracks the development of scheduling from the emergence of 'bar charts' at the end of the 18th Century through to present times and looks at the way the evolving technology has changed the way projects are scheduled and managed.  
A Brief History of Scheduling (short summary)

The 1910 Schürch barchart referenced in the 'History of Scheduling' paper: These are fully developed, sophisticated project control tools in use many years before the work of Henry Gantt was published.

PPThe Origins of Bar Charting. This paper looks at the ancient Greek and Egyptian origins of the concepts used by both Priestly and Playfair as a starting point to develop their charts which in turn led to the development of the modern bar chart by the late 1800s.

Art: The origins of PERT and CPM.  Research into the origins of the mathematics and drawing styles used in PERT and critical path schedules.
Art: The Origins of Hammocks and Ladders. Hammock and Ladders are activity types that were developed in the period 1961 to 1965. This paper outlines the development of these useful scheduling assets an differentiates Hammocks from LOE and Summary activities.

The story of Micro Planner - one of the first scheduling tools developed for personal (micro) computers: see the timeline

The history of Earned Value and Cost Controls



The 1964 Evaluation of PERT/Cost




Developments in the creation and use of controls information

Prs: Seeing the Road Ahead - the challenge of communicating schedule data. (This presentation will be developed into a full paper) The presentation looks at the challenges faced by project controls professionals, both in the past and present times, to communicate sophisticated information to other members of the project team and their stakeholders and some of the tools and processes they used.

Blg: Predicting Completion.  When did managers start using data to calculate project completion times and costs?  It would appear to be a development of the 1950s.

Blg: The three phases of project controls. The reactive, empirical and predictive phases of project controls (see also Predicting Completion). 
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